The present article proposes a reflexion about the relationship between the loss of authority of the paternal function in contemporary Western society, its relationship with the death of God, and the crisis of patriarchy. A central hypothesis orders the argument: that the death of God would not have supposed, as Enlightement culture had forseen, the end of mythological thought but, on the contrary, the return, no less mythological, of a new type of divinity: a maternal goddess whose presence can explain the religious underpinning of the main totalitarian movements that were about to destroy European civilization in the first half of the 20th century: Nazism and Stalinist communism. From this point of view, the word chosen to name the mass crimes of the time is especially precise: the word holocaust. In light of these considerations, a reflection on the historical origins of patriarchy and a reconsideration of its civilizing value is proposed.
God, Goddess, Holocaust, Totalitarianism, Anthropology, Mythology