Two perspectives are presented that seek to define the notion of a Latin American cultural identity. One is sustained by heteroclite colonialism, the other, a more recent one, sustained by the indigenous communities’ claims. Both have been present since the nineteenth century as possible standpoints for the acknowledgment of each of the fragments constituting Latinamerican national States. The considerations proposed are supported by the work of authors such as Mariano Picón Salas, José Carlos Mariátegui, Octavio Paz, Roberto Fernández Retamar, Augusto Roa Bastos, Arturo Uslar Pietri, John Beverley and Ronny Velásquez, among other cultural critics.
Culture, cultural identity, indigenous rights.