Grandeur et décadence du concept de Tolérance en Europe, de Voltaire à nos jours

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The concept of «tolerance» has acquired its letters of nobility in Europe, during the Enlightenment. Philosophers such as John Locke, Bayle, Voltaire or Mirabeau are made fervent defenders. But, since the French Revolution, religious tolerance has gradually given way to other concerns. Yet today, the question of toleration returns to the center of the debate. Facing terrorism and fanaticism, its validity itself has been questioned. Direct legacy of the Enlightenment and the foundation of the American and French Revolutions as well as of our universal values such as Human Rights, would the concept of tolerance and/or toleration be no longer justified? Should it be revisited in the light of recent events and openly include certain limits? This is what this paper aims to determine.


Europe, immigration, integration, Islam, French secularism, Enlightenment, toleration vs intolerance, terrorism

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